[silent] An agreement signed at the Munich Conference in September 1938 ceded the German-speaking Sudetenland from Czechoslovakia to Germany. The agreement was concluded between Germany, Italy, Great Britain and France. Czechoslovakia was not allowed to participate in the conference. In March 1939, six months after the munich accords were signed, Hitler violated the agreement and destroyed the Czech state. UCLA Film and Television Archive After the Nazis seized power in 1933, Germany demanded the “return” of the ethnic German population of Czechoslovakia – and the country where they lived – to the German Reich. In the late summer of 1938, Hitler threatened to start a European war if the Sudetenland was not ceded to Germany. The Sudetenland was a border area of Czechoslovakia with a predominantly German-speaking population as well as all defensive positions of the Czechoslovak army in case of war with Germany. The leaders of Britain, France, Italy and Germany held a conference in Munich on September 29 and 30, 1938. In the so-called Munich Pact, they accepted the German annexation of the Sudetenland in exchange for Hitler`s promise of peace. When Chamberlain returned from Munich, he told an excited crowd at Heston Airport, “This is peace for our time,” waving the agreement he had signed with Hitler. This was the culmination of the policy of appeasement. Six months later, Hitler broke his promises and ordered his armies to invade Prague. In less than a year, Britain and France were at war with Germany.
The agreement was generally well received. French Prime Minister Daladier did not believe, as one scholar put it, that a European war was justified “to keep three million Germans under Czech sovereignty.” But the same argument applies to Alsace-Lorraine – unlike the alliance between France and Czechoslovakia against German aggression. Gallup polls in Britain, France and the United States showed that the majority of people supported the deal. Czechoslovak President Beneš was nominated for a Nobel Peace Prize in 1939.  On September 29, the leaders of the four powers met in Munich, and talks continued late into the night. A delegation from Czechoslovakia had arrived, but was not allowed to enter the conference room. Mussolini proposed a plan that Germany would win over all of the Sudetenland, but then refrain from further expansionist measures. In fact, what he presented to other nations resembled in its main points the ultimatum that Hitler himself had given to the British leader so recently. The economic consequences of the Munich Agreement will be very harsh for Czechoslovakia. The loss of industries, railway heads, knots, etc. can only lead to serious business losses and unemployment. There is also no doubt that Czechoslovakia will become an object of quasi-colonial exploitation for Germany.
The Munich Accords (Czech: Mnichovská dohoda; Slovak: Mníchovská dohoda; Munich Agreement) or Munich Betrayal (Czech: Mnichovská zrada; Mníchovská zrada) was an agreement concluded in Munich on September 30, 1938 by Nazi Germany, the United Kingdom, the French Third Republic and the Kingdom of Italy. He granted Germany the “cession of the Sudeten German territory” from Czechoslovakia.  Most European countries celebrated the agreement because it prevented the war threatened by Adolf Hitler by allowing Nazi Germany to annex the Sudetenland, a region in western Czechoslovakia inhabited by more than 3 million people, mostly German-speaking. Hitler proclaimed this was his last territorial claim in Europe, and the choice seemed to be between war and appeasement. As threats from Germany and a European war became more and more apparent, opinions changed. Chamberlain has been criticized for his role as one of the “men of Munich” in books such as The Guilty Men of 1940. A rare defence of the deal came in 1944 from Viscount Maugham, who had been Lord Chancellor. Maugham regarded the decision to establish a Czechoslovak state with significant German and Hungarian minorities as a “dangerous experiment” in light of previous disputes and largely attributed the agreement to the need for the France to free itself from its contractual obligations since it was not prepared for war.  After the war, Churchill`s memoirs of the time, The Gathering Storm (1948), claimed that Chamberlain`s appeasement of Hitler in Munich had been wrong, and recorded Churchill`s warnings about war before Hitler`s plan of attack and the madness that Britain insisted on disarmament after Germany had achieved air parity with Britain. Although Churchill acknowledged that Chamberlain was acting for noble motives, he argued that Hitler should have been fought because of Czechoslovakia and that efforts should have been made to include the Soviet Union. Although the first British reaction was generally positive, as the population expected war, they quickly became angry.
Despite the royal patronage – Chamberlain was greeted as a hero by the royal family and invited to the balcony of Buckingham Palace before presenting the deal to Parliament – the opposition was present from the start and Clement Attlee and the Labour Party rejected the deal in alliance with what had until now been seen as the hardened and reactionary element of the Conservative Party. After Poland learned that the territories inhabited by Poland were to be handed over to Germany, there was a note to the Czechoslovak government calling for “the immediate conclusion of an agreement according to which Polish territory should be undeniably occupied by Polish troops; This should be followed by an agreement on referendums in districts where a large share of the Polish population is high.  The slogan “About us, without us! (Czech: O nás bez nás!) summarizes the feelings of the Czechoslovak people (now Slovakia and the Czech Republic) towards the agreement. [Citation needed] With the transition from the Sudetenland to Germany, Czechoslovakia (as the state was renamed) lost its defensible border with Germany and its fortifications. Without it, its independence became more nominal than real. Czechoslovakia also lost 70% of its steel industry, 70% of its electrical energy and 3.5 million citizens to Germany as a result of unification.  Sudeten Germans celebrated what they saw as their liberation. The impending war, it seems, had been averted. On September 30 at 11:45 p.m..m.m, 11 a.m., 11 a.m., after the Czechoslovak government agreed to the Munich terms, Poland issued an ultimatum to the Czechoslovak government.  He demanded the immediate evacuation of Czechoslovak troops and police and gave Prague until noon the next day. At 11:45 a.m.m on October 1, the Czechoslovak Foreign Ministry called the Polish ambassador in Prague and told him that Poland could have anything it wanted, but then asked for a 24-hour delay. The 2.
In October, the Polish army under the command of General Władysław Bortnowski annexed an area of 801.5 km² with a population of 227,399 people. Administratively, the annexed area was divided between Frysztat County and Cieszyn County.  At the same time, Slovakia lost 10,390 km² to Hungary with 854,277 inhabitants. After discussing the issue with the British cabinet, Chamberlain was given the green light for Germany`s annexation of the Sudetenland, with the France also agreeing. They met with representatives of the Czech government on 19 September to recommend approval of the plan, and Czechoslovakia, which was almost isolated, had no choice but to accept its fate. Chamberlain returned to Germany for a follow-up meeting with Hitler and was shocked when he received further requests from the German leader. In the meantime, the British government has asked Beneš to ask for an intermediary. As Beneš did not want to sever his government`s ties with Western Europe, he reluctantly agreed. .
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