But. Any sense of optimism about the progress made by the Paris Agreement must be tempered by the harsh reality of how far it still has to go. Here`s what still needs to change. At the 2011 United Nations Climate Change Conference, the Durban Platform (and the ad hoc working group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action) was established with the aim of negotiating a legal instrument for climate action from 2020 onwards. The resulting agreement is expected to be adopted in 2015.  The Paris Agreement is an agreement under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that deals with the mitigation, adaptation and financing of greenhouse gas emissions and deals with the mitigation, adaptation and financing of greenhouse gases. The wording of the agreement was negotiated by representatives of 196 States Parties at the 21st Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC at Le Bourget, near Paris, in France, and adopted by consensus on 12 December 2015.   By February 2020, the 196 members of the UNFCCC had signed the agreement and 189 had become parties.  Of the seven countries that are not parties to the law, the only major emitters are Iran and Turkey. Adaptation issues were further emphasized in the drafting of the Paris Agreement. Collective long-term adaptation objectives are included in the agreement and countries are held accountable for their adaptation measures, making adaptation a parallel component of the agreement with mitigation.  Adaptation objectives focus on improving adaptive capacity, increasing resilience and limiting vulnerability.
 The EU has made respect for Paris a condition of any free trade agreement concluded since 2015 – and Brazil`s regression on deforestation is a potential obstacle to ratifying its agreement with the Mercosur bloc. Under the Paris Agreement, each country must regularly identify, plan and report on its contribution to the fight against global warming.  There is no mechanism requiring a country to set a specific emission target on a specific date, but each target should go beyond the targets set previously. The United States officially withdrew from the agreement the day after the 2020 presidential election, although President-elect Joe Biden said America would join the agreement after his inauguration.  The objective of the agreement is to reduce global warming as described in Article 2 and to improve the implementation of the UNFCCC by: Indeed, research clearly shows that the costs of inaction on climate change far outweigh the costs of reducing carbon pollution. A recent study suggests that if the United States fails to meet its Paris climate goals, it could cost the economy up to $6 trillion in the coming decades. A global failure to meet the NDCs currently set out in the agreement could reduce global GDP by more than 25% by the end of the century. At the same time, another study estimates that meeting – or even exceeding – the Paris targets through infrastructure investments in clean energy and energy efficiency could have huge global benefits – around $19 trillion. From November 30 to November 11. In December 2015, France hosted representatives from 196 countries at the United Nations Climate Change Conference, one of the largest and most ambitious global climate conferences ever held.
The goal was nothing less than a binding, universal agreement that would limit greenhouse gas emissions to levels that would prevent global temperatures from rising more than 2°C (3.6°F) above the temperature scale set before the start of the Industrial Revolution. The level of NDCs set by each country will set that country`s objectives. However, the “contributions” themselves are not binding under international law because they do not have the specificity, normative character [clarification required] or mandatory language required to create binding norms.  In addition, there will be no mechanism that requires a country to set a target in its NDC by a certain date, and no application if a set target is not achieved in an NDC.   There will only be a “Name and Shame” system, or as János Pásztor, UN Under-Secretary-General for Climate Change, told CBS News (USA), a “Name and Encourage” plan.  Given that the agreement does not foresee any consequences if countries do not comply with their obligations, such a consensus is fragile. A net of nations withdrawing from the deal could trigger the withdrawal of more governments and lead to a total collapse of the deal.  Although climate change mitigation and adaptation require increased climate finance, adaptation has generally received a lower level of support and mobilised less private sector action.  A 2014 OECD report found that in 2014, only 16% of global financing went to climate change adaptation.  The Paris Agreement called for a balance between climate finance and mitigation, and in particular highlighted the need to increase adaptation support for parties most vulnerable to the effects of climate change, including least developed countries and small island developing states. The agreement also reminds the parties of the importance of public subsidies, as adaptation measures receive less investment from the public sector.  John Kerry, as Secretary of State, announced that the United States would double funding for grant-based adaptation by 2020.
 In 1992, President George H.W. Bush called on 107 other heads of state at the Earth Summit in Rio, Brazil, to adopt a series of environmental agreements, including the UNFCCC framework, which is still in force today. The international treaty aims to prevent dangerous human interference in Earth`s climate systems in the long term. The Pact does not set limits on greenhouse gas emissions for each country and does not include enforcement mechanisms, but rather provides a framework for international negotiations on future agreements or protocols to set binding emission targets. Participating countries meet annually for a Conference of the Parties (COP) to assess their progress and continue discussions on how best to tackle climate change. The desire for a more ambitious goal was maintained in the deal – with the promise to further limit global temperatures to 1.5°C. The agreement recognises the role of non-party actors in the fight against climate change, including cities, other sub-national authorities, civil society, the private sector and others. When the agreement reached enough signatures on October 5, 2016 to cross the threshold, US President Barack Obama said: “Even if we achieve all the objectives […].
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